The Emergence of East Central Europe in a Welfare Regime Typology
Keywords:Mobile services, customer satisfaction, service quality, UAE
AbstractThe paper contributes to the welfare state regime literature by assessing the existence of the East-Central European welfare state regime. The article empirically tests whether East-Central European countries constitute a distinct welfare regime or they can be classified into existing regimes by using hierarchical cluster analysis. The paper defines clusters for two distinct time periods, in order to shed light on the changes over time. The research provides two substantive contributions. First, welfare states in East-Central Europe constitute a distinct welfare state regime only for the period of 2014-2016, and they might be subdivided into two groups: (1) Visegrad countries and (2) Balkan and Baltic countries together. Second, countries within the East-Central European welfare regime has become more similar over time.
Achterberg, P. & Yerkes, M. (2009). One welfare state emerging? Convergence versus divergence in 16 western countries. Journal of Comparative Social Welfare. 25(3), 189-201.
Adascalitei, D. (2012). Welfare State Development in Central and Eastern Europe: A State of the Art Literature Review. Studies of Transition States and Societies. 4(2), 59-70.
Aidukaite, J. (2004). The Emergence of the Post-Socialist Welfare State: The Case of the Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations No. 1, Stockholm, Huddinge: Elanders Gotab, Södertörns Högskola.
Aidukaite, J. (2011). Welfare reforms and socio-economic trends in the 10 new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe. Communist and Post-Communist Studies. 44(3), 211-219.
Alestalo, M. & Hort, S. E.O. & Kuhnle, S. (2009): The Nordic Model: Conditions, Origins, Outcomes, Lessons. Hertie School of Governance Working Paper No. 41. Berlin: Hertie School of Governance
André, C. (2006): Welfare regimes and A. Sapir's paper: "Globalisation and the Reform of European Social Models". Proceedings from 2006 workshop: Concepts of the European Social Model. Vienna
Arts, W.A. & Gelissen, J. (2001). Welfare States, Solidarity and Justice Principles: Does the Type Really Matter? Acta Sociologica. 44(4), 283-300.
Arts, W.A. & Gelissen, J. (2002). Three worlds of welfare capitalism or more? A state-of-the-art report. Journal of European Social Policy. 12(2), 137-158.
Barnes, L. & Wren, A. (2012). The Liberal Model in (the) Crisis: Continuity and change in Great Britain and Ireland. In Bermeo, N. & Pontusson, J. (Eds.). Coping with Crisis: Government Reactions to the Great Recession. (pp. 287-324.) New York: Russel Sage Foundation
Bonoli, G. (1997). Classifying welfare states: a two-dimension approach. Journal of Social Policy. 26(3), 351-372.
Brooks, C. & Manza, J. (2006). Why do welfare states persist? The Journal of Politics. 68(4), 816-827.
Büchs, M. (2009). The Open Method of Coordination - Effectively preventing welfare state retrenchment? European Integration online Papers (EIoP). Special Issue 1, Vol. 13, Art. 11. Retrieved from http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/71180/1/EIoP_2009.pdf
Burns, R. B. & Burns, R. A. (2008). Business research methods and statistics using SPSS. Los Angeles: Sage Publications
Cameron, D. R. (1978). The Expansion of the Public Economy. American Political Science Review. 72(4), 1243-1261.
Caminada, K. & Goudswaard, K. & Van Vliet, O. (2010). Patterns of Welfare State Indicators in the EU: Is there Convergence? Journal of Common Market Studies, 48(3), 529-556.
Cerami, A. (2005). Social Policy in Central and Eastern Europe. The Emerge of a New European Model of Solidarity. Erfurt: Erfurt University.
Cook, L. J. (2010). Emerging Welfare States: Eastern Europe and Russia. In Castles, F. C. & Leibfried, S. & Lewis, J. c Pierson, C. (Eds.). The Oxford Handbook of the Welfare State. (pp. 671-688.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cornelisse, P. A. & Goudswaard, K. P. (2002). On the convergence of social protection systems in the European Union. International Social Security Review. 55(3), 3-17.
Cox, T. (2018). Bifurcation, stratification and informality in post-socialist welfare regimes. Intersections: East European journal of society and politics. 4(1), 24-44.
Deacon, B. (1992). The Future of Social Policy in Eastern Europe. In Deacon, B. (Ed.). The New Eastern Europe Social Policy Past, Present and Future. (pp. 167-192.) London: Sage Publications
Ebbinghaus, B. (2012). Comparing welfare state regimes: Are typologies an ideal or realistic strategy? European Social Policy Analysis Network ESPAnet Conference: Edinburgh, UK
Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Esping-Andersen, G. (1996). Occupational welfare in the social policy nexus. In Shalev, M. (Ed.). The privatization of social policy? (pp. 327-338.) New York: Macmillan Press
Fenger, H. (2007). Welfare Regimes in Central and Eastern Europe: Incorporating Post-Communist Countries in a Welfare Regime Typology. Contemporary Issues and Ideas in Social Sciences. 3(2), 1-30.
Ferragina, E. & Seeleib-Kaiser, M. (2011). Thematic Review: Welfare regime debate: past, present, futures? Policy & Politics 39(4), 583‐611.
Ferrera, M. (1996). The "Southern" Model of Welfare State in Social Europe. Journal of European Social Policy. 6(1), 17-37.
Gal, J. (2010). Is there an extended family of Mediterranean welfare states? Journal of European Social Policy. 20(4), 283-300.
Ginsburg, N. (1979). Class, Capital and Social Policy. London: Macmillan
Goodin, R. E. & Headey, B. & Muffels, R. & Dirven, H.-J. (1999). The Real Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hemerijck, A. C. & Marx, I. (2006). Redirecting Continental Welfare in Belgium and the Netherlands. Paper presented at "A Long Goodbye to Bismarck? The Politics of Welfare Reforms in Continental Europe" Harvard University. Retrieved from http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~ces/conferences/bismarck/docs/pdf/hemerijck.pdf
Hemerijck, A. C. (2013). Changing Welfare States. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Inglot, T. (2008). Welfare states in East Central Europe, 1919-2004. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press
Inkeles, A. (1998). One world emerging: Convergence and divergence in industrial societies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Iversen, T. & Wren, A. (1998). Equality, Employment, and Budgetary Restraint: Trilemma of the Service Economy. World Politics. 50(4), 507-546.
Jones, C. J. (1993). The pacific challenge: Confucian welfare states. In: Jones, C. (ed.): New Perspectives on the Welfare State in Europe. (pp.198-217.) London: Routledge
Katzenstein, P. (1985). Small States in World Markets: Industrial Policy in Europe. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press
Kautto, M. & Fritzell, J. & Hvinden, B. & Kvist, J. & Uusitalo, H. (2001). Introduction: How distinct are the Nordic Welfare States? In Kautto, M. et al (Eds.). Nordic Welfare States in the European Context. (pp. 1-17.) London: Routledge
Korpi, W. (1980). Social Policy and Distributional Conflict in the Capitalist democracies. West European Politics. 3(3), 296-316.
Kouba, L. & Grochova, L. (2013). The European Welfare State from the Prospect of New EU Member States. MENDELU Working Papers in Business and Economics 2013-38. Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Business and Economics.
Kuivalainen, S. & Nelson, K. (2010). The Nordic welfare model in a European perspective. Institutet för Framtidsstudier/Institute for Futures Studies Arbetsrapport/Working Paper 2010:11.
Kvist, J. & Greve, B. (2011). Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed? Social Policy & Administration. 45(2), 146-160.
Lange, P. & Meadwell, H. (1991). Typologies of Democratic Systems: Form Political Inputs to Political Economy. In Wiarda, H. J. (Ed.). New Directions in Comparative Politics. (pp. 82‐117). Boulder, CO: Westview
Leibfried, S. (1992). Towards a European welfare state? On integrating Poverty. Regimes into the European Community. In Ferge, Z. - Kolberg, J. E. (Eds.). Social Policy in a Changing Europe. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag
Lijphart, A. (1971). Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method. The American Political Science Review. 65(3), 682-693.
Linos, K. & West, M. (2003). Self-interest, Social Beliefs, and Attitudes to Redistribution. Re-addressing the Issue of Cross-national Variation. European Sociological Review. 19(4), 393-409.
Midgley, J. (1997). Social Welfare in Global Context. Thousand Oaks, London: Sage Publications.
Mischke, M. (2014). Theoretical background and literature review. In Mischke, M. (Ed.). Public Attitudes towards Family Policies in Europe. Linking Institutional Context and Public Opinion. (pp. 25-74.) Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien.
Kittel, B. & Obinger, H. (2003). Political parties, institutions, and the dynamics of social expenditure in times of austerity. Journal of European Public Policy. 10(1), 20-45.
Paetzold, J. (2013). The Convergence of Welfare State Indicators in Europe: Evidence from Panel Data. European Journal of Social Security. 15(1), 28-54.
Palier, B. (2006): The Politics of Reforms in Bismarckian Welfare Systems. Revue française des affaires sociales special issue, Social Welfare Reforms in Europe. Challenges and Strategies in Continental and Southern Europe. 47-72.
Palier, B. (2010). Ordering change: Understanding the 'Bismarckian' Welfare Reform Trajectory. In Palier, B. (Ed.): A Long Goodbye to Bismarck? The Politics of Welfare Reform in Continental Europe. (pp. 19-44.) Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press
Pedersen, S. (1995). Family, Dependence, and the Origins of the Welfare State: Britain and France, 1914-1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pierson, P. (2001). The new politics of the welfare state. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rangone, M. & Solari, S. (2010). Southern Europe's Social Model of Economic Growth in an Age of Financialisation and Crisis. ICaTSEM (Institutional Change and Trajectories of Socio-Economic Models) Working Paper No. 2010-01. University of Padova
Rapkin, B. D. & Luke, D. A. (1993). Cluster Analysis in Community Research: Epistemology and Practice. American Journal of Community Psychology. 21(2), 247-277.
Rodrik, D. (1998). Why Do More Open Economies Have Bigger Governments? Journal of Political Economy. 106(5), 997-1032.
Ruggie, J. G. (1982). International Regimes, Transactions and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order. International Organization. 36(2), 379-415.
Saint-Arnaud, S. & Bernard, P. (2003). Convergence or Resilience? A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of the Welfare Regimes in Advanced Countries. Current Sociology. 51(5), 499-527.
Sapir, A. (2006). Globalization and the Reform of European Social Models. Journal of Common Market Studies, 44(2), 369-390.
Schmitt, C. & Starke, P. (2011). Explaining convergence of OECD welfare states: a conditional approach. Journal of European Social Policy. 21(2), 120-135.
Sotiropoulos, D. A. & Neamtu, I. & Stoyanova, M. (2003). The Trajectory of Post-communist Welfare State Development: The Cases of Bulgaria and Romania. Social Policy & Administration. 37(6), 656-673.
Starke, P. & Obinger, H. & Castles, F. (2008). Convergence towards where: in what ways, if any, are welfare states becoming more similar? Journal of European Public Policy. 15(7), 975-1000.
Svallfors, S. (1997). Worlds of Welfare and Attitudes to Redistribution: A Comparison of Eight Western Nations. European Sociological Review. 13(3), 283-304.
Taylor-Gooby, P. (2001). Sustaining the welfare state in hard times: Who will foot the bill? Journal of European Social Policy. 11(2), 133-147.
Taylor-Gooby, P. (2013). The Double Crisis of the Welfare State and What We Can Do About It. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Toots, A. & Bachmann, J. (2010). Contemporary Welfare Regimes in Baltic States: Adapting Post-communist Conditions to Post-modern Challenges. Journal of Transition States and Societies. 2(2), 31−44.
Weber, M. (1949|2011). Methodology of social sciences. Illinois: The Free Press of Glencoe. Reprint of 2011 published by New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers
Wilensky, H. (1975). The Welfare State and Equality: Structural and Ideological Roots of Public Expenditure. Berkeley: University of California Press
Zeitlin, J. H. (2003). Introduction: Governing Work and Welfare in a New Economy: European and American Experiments. In Zeitlin, J. H. & Trubek, D. (Eds.). Governing Work and Welfare in a New Economy: European and American Experiments. (pp. 1-30). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
How to Cite
CC Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0