Overpowering the law enforcing agency and human rights challenges


  • AKM Ahsan Ullah University Brunei Darussalam
  • Lutfunnessa Sagor Faculty of Law, American International University of Bangladesh




The Migration Conference 2018, managing migration, globalisation, migrant workers


This research seeks to explore and understand the extent of human rights is violated by an elite force in Bangladesh. The constitutional right to life should not be derogated or suspended, and no person should be stripped of his or her basic human rights. (Number) of victims and human rights activists were recruited via snowball sampling and in-depth interviews were conducted. Secondary data was obtained via daily newspapers, magazines and bulletins published by various human rights organizations in Bangladesh. This is due to the elite force ignoring the existing constitutional guarantee of the right to life. The participants views were that the government has to ensure human rights are maintained. It should limit the jurisdiction of the elite force and conform to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.


Metrics Loading ...


Akash, Jahangir A. 2011. Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC). Civil and Political Rights, Including the question of: Torture and detention, Pain. Bloomington: Xlibris Corporation. 7 February 2005.

Alam Nora. 2016. Extra Judicial Killing and Violation of Human Rights in Bangladesh. https://sufiborshan.wordpress.com/2016/01/03/extra-judicial-killing-and-violation-of-human-rights-in-bangladesh/

Amnesty International. 1 July 2010. Bangladesh: Security forces used excessive force during raid http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/bangladeshi-security-forces-used- excessive-force-during-raid-2010-07-01 (Accessed 16 September 2010).

Amnesty International, Bangladesh: Torture and Impunity, AI Index: ASA: 13/07/00, November 2000, pp. 1-2, available at http://web.amnesty.org/aidoc/aidoc_pdf.nsf/Index/ASA130072000ENGLISH/$File/ASA1300700.pdf.

Asian Human Rights Commission. December 2009. The State of Human Rights in Bangladesh 2009 http://material.ahrchk.net/hrreport/2009/AHRC-SPR-001-2009-Bangladesh- HRReport2009.pdf (Accessed 16 September 2010).

Asian Human Rights Commission. 2007. Bangladesh: The Human Rights Situation in 2006. Report. Hong Kong.

ASK, 2014. Death By Law Enforcement Agencies, 2013. January 11, 2014 - Death by Law Enforcement. Dhaka: ASK.

Aziz, M. A. and Islam, M.A. 2001. The validity of the Special Power Act, unreported case. Dhaka: The New Nation, 13 July..

Bangladesh Police. 2016. Crime statistics comparative.

BBC News. 13 December 2005. Bangladesh's feared elite police http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/45 22734.stm (Accessed 20 September 2010)

Choudhury Salah Uddin Shoaib. 2008. Dying while in custody: Bangladeshs Rapid Action Battalion Licensed to kill! Canadafreepress. March 26. Downloaded on 2 January 2017 from http://canadafreepress.com/article/bangladeshs-rapid-action-battalion-licensed-to-kill.

Chowdhury, Ahmed Amin. 1997. Bangladesh Police: Uttoradhicar O Babasthapana (In Bengali), Bangladesh Police: Heritage and Administration, Dhaka: S. S. Printers.

Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative. 2013. Police Accountability in India, available at: http://www.humanrightsinitiative.

Derichs Claudia and Thompson Mark R. 2013. Dynasties and Female Political Leaders in Asia Gender, Power and Pedigree, Berlin and London: Lit-Verlag.

Couper David C. 2012. Arrested Development: A Veteran Police Chief Sounds About Protest, Racism, Corruption and the Seven Steps Necessary to Improve Our Nation's Police. North Charleston SC: Createspace.

Freedom House. 3 May 2010. Freedom in the World 2010 Bangladesh http://www.unhcr.org/cgi- bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=printdoc&docid=4c0ceb07b (Accessed 20 September 2010)

Global Integrity. 2010. Global Integrity Report: Bangladesh. http://www.globalintegrity.org/report/Bangladesh/2010/

Halim, Md. Abdul. 2010. Constitution, Constitutional Law and Politics: Bangladesh Perspective, 2nd. Dhaka: CCB Foundation.

Hamid Syed Sarfaraj. 2014. Police System of Bangladesh: A Study. South Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies (SAJMS) ISSN:2349-7858 :SJIF 2.246:Volume 2 Issue 2, Universal Multidisciplinary Research Institute Pvt Ltd.

Haque, Zahurul, Md. 2008. The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898, 2nd Edition, 2007. Khan Faruk M, The Penal Code, 1860,1st Edition.

Huda Muhammad Nurul. 30 July 2004. Rapid Action Battalion: Rationale and reality. Dhaka: The Daily Star.

Huda, Muhammad Nurul. 2006. Controlling police and all that. (Post Editorial). Dhaka: The Daily Star, July 29.?

Human Rights Watch. 11 August 2008. Bangladesh: End Wave of Killings by Elite Forces http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2008/08/10/bangladesh-end-wave-killings-eliteforces?print (Accessed 20 September 2010).

Human Rights Watch. 14 December 2006. Judge, Jury, and Executioner: Torture and Extrajudicial Killings by Bangladesh's Elite Security Force http://www.unhcr.org/cgi- bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=printdoc&docid=45a4db532 (Accessed 16 September 2010)

Human Rights Watch. 15 April 2009. Bangladesh: Investigate Killing by Anti-Crime Unit http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/04/15/bangladesh-investigate-killing-anti-crime- unit?print (Accessed 20 September 2010).

Human Rights Watch. 18 May 2009. Ignoring Executions and Torture: Impunity for Bangladesh's Security Forces http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/4a110ecf2.pdf (Accessed 20 September 2010).

Human Rights Watch. 23 October 2009. Bangladesh: Bring Paramilitary Unit Torturers to Justice http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/10/23/bangladesh-bring-paramilitary-unit-torturersjustice?print (Accessed 20 September 2010)

Human Rights Watch. 2011. Crossfire - Continued Human Rights Abuses by Bangladeshs Rapid Action Battalion, 10 May 2011, available at: http://www.hrw.org/node/98591/section/2,last accessed on 1 September 2013.

Institute for Human Rights and Business. 2014. State of Play Human Rights in the Political Economy of States: Avenues for Application. London: IHRB.

International Crisis Group (ICG). 2009. Bangladesh: Getting Police Reform on Track, 11 December 2009, Asia Report N182, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b22758b2.html, last accessed on 8 October 2013.

Inter Press Service. 21 January 2010. Bangladesh: No End in Sight for Extrajudicial Killings http://ipsnews.net/print.asp?idnews=50053 (Accessed 20 September 2010).

Islam Shariful. 2008. 4 Years Of Operations: RAB recovers image as 'crossfire' marks fall. 26 March. Dhaka: The Daily Star.

Karan, Vijay. 2000. Police, Crime and Punishment: Indian Predicaments (A. Indias Police: The Dilemmas of an Aberrated System), in Rani Dhavan Shankardass, (ed.) Punishment and the Prison: Indian and International Perspectives. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Karzon, S.H.R. 2008. Theoretical and Applied Criminology, Dhaka: Palal Prokashoni and Empowerment through Law of the Common People (ELCOP).

Khon Munty. 2011. Extrajudicial Killing and Enforced Disappearance in South and Southeast Asia. provisions to ensure human rights. Volume Vol. 66. Osaka: Asia Pacific Human Rights Information Center.

Law Help Bangladesh. 2016. Criminal laws and constitution of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Law Help Bangladesh.

Malik. M. A. K. 2010. Extra-judicial Killings and Custodial Torture: From Cross-fire to Death-squad 28 May.

Mangal Malem Laishram. 2012. Extra-Judicial Killings versus Rule of Law, 8 April, 2012 Odhikar, Human Rights Reports on Bangladesh, 2010,2011

McPherson Poppy. 2016. Bangladesh is vanishing the opposition. The country's growing number of 'disappeared' are paying for their fathers' (alleged) sins. December 16, 2016. Foreign Policy.

Mehtab Farhana Helal and Rahman Sheikh Hafizur. 2014. Identifying The Problems Of Bangladesh Police & Rapid Action Battalion: Recommending Way. DIU Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Volume 2 July, pp:13-34.

Momtaz Suraya. 2013. Human Rights Violations in Bangladesh: A Study of the Violations by the Law Enforcing Agencies. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(13):101-119.

New Age. 15 July 2008. RAB s extrajudicial killings under US microscope http://www.newagebd.com/2008/jul/15/front.html#3

Odhikar. 1 January 2010. Human Rights Report 2009: Odhikar Report on Bangladesh http://www.odhikar.org/documents/2009/English_report/HRR_2009.pdf (Accessed 20 September 2010)

Odhikar. 2013. Human rights report 2013. Dhaka: Odhikar.

Police Regulations, Bengal 1943. 1997. Dhaka: Bangladesh Government Press.?Transparency International Bangladesh (2004). Working Paper on Police Stations.?Post-2015 UN Development Agenda.?at http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview/mdg_goals/post-2015- development-agenda/ (accessed on 30 January, 2014 at 4.15 AM)?

RAB. 2009. Summary of Recovered Weapons Till Today Till December 2007. http://www.rab.gov.bd/achievement.php?cid=4

Rahman, Sheikh Hafizur. 2013. Human Rights Training Manual for Police, Dhaka: National Human Rights Commission?The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh (2011). Dhaka: Government Publication.

Rahman Redwanur M. 2006. Human rights, health and the state in Bangladesh. BMC International Health and Human Rights,6:4.

Randall James G. 1922. The Indemnity Act of 1863: A Study in the War-Time Immunity of Governmental Officers. Michigan Law Review, Vol. 20, No. 6 (April), pp. 589-613.

Rauchfuss Knut, Schmolze Bianca. 2008. Justice heals: The impact of impunity and the fight against it on the recovery of severe human rights violations survivors. Torture - Journal on Rehabilitation of Torture Victims and Prevention of Torture, Vol 18(1).pp12-19.

South Asia Analysis Group. 2003. Bangladesh: Operation Clean Heart. Paper# 674. New Delhi: SAA.

Sultana Razia. 2005. Extrajudicial Killings in the Name of Crossfire. Vol. 15,Human Rights Solidarity, Kowloon: Asian Human Rights Commission, May-July.

Transparency International. 2007. Global Corruption Report: Corruption and Judicial Systems. http://www.transparency.org/publications/gcr/gcr_2007

Transparency International Bangladesh. 2010. National Household Survey. http://www.ti-bangladesh.org/research/Executive Summary_23122010 FINAL.pdf

Ullah AKM Ahsan. 2014. Refugee Politics in the Middle East and the Africa: Human Rights, Safety and Identity. London: Palgrave McMillan.

UNDP. 2002. Violence and Repression against Women and Children: An Unending Agenda, Human Security in Bangladesh, in search of Justice and Dignity, UNDP, 2002, Page. 103,104.

United Nations. 2016. What are human rights. Geneva: United nations Human Rights Office of High Commissioner.

UN. 2012. The Role of the International Criminal Court in Ending Impunity and Establishing the rule of Law. New York. UN Chronicle. Vol. XLIX No. 4

United States Department of State. 2012. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012 United States Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor

US Department of State. 11 March 2010. 2009 Human Rights Report: Bangladesh http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/sca/136085.htm (Accessed 16 September 2010)

World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) / International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH). 13 September 2010. Steadfast in Protest Annual Report 2010: Bangladesh http://www.ein.org.uk/members/country/print.shtml?cmd[113]=x-113-279622 (Accessed 20 September 2010).




How to Cite

Ullah, A. A. and Sagor, L. (2018) “Overpowering the law enforcing agency and human rights challenges”, Border Crossing. London, UK, 8(1), pp. 181–199. doi: 10.33182/bc.v8i1.579.